Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which shows potential roles in damaging the DNA and proteins at the nucleus, and eventually results in apoptosis and even cell death. Antioxidant agents can inhibit the generation of ROS after IR exposure. Tannic acid (TA), has an antioxidant activity involving in preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TA on irradiation-induced apoptosis in megakaryocytes. Here, we evaluated the anti-radiation activity of TA in megakaryocytes. Our results showed that TA protected megakaryocytes from apoptosis induced by IR, attenuated IR-induced increases in the production of ROS, and inhibited the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Moreover, TA down-regulated NAPDH oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression, and decreased the phosphorylated levels of JNK and p38. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor could reduce apoptosis induced by X-irradiation in M07e cells. In vivo experiments confirmed that TA could promote the platelet recovery, reduce the percentage of apoptosis CD41+ megakaryocytes in bone marrow and raise survival during 30 days in mice by total body irradiation. In conclusion, TA can protecte the megakaryocytes from apoptosis caused by IR through inhibiting Nox1 expression to reduce ROS generation and repressing JNK/p38 MAPK pathway activation.