In Experiment 1, the effect of repeated injections of 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) on food intake and body weight was studied in rats on an activity anorexia (AA) regimen. For several days before CDP testing began, rats lived in activity wheels and had one 60-min meal per day. During CDP testing, this regimen continued except that each rat was injected with an appropriate dose of CDP or saline 30 min before each meal. CDP enhanced food intake; 5.0 mg/kg seemed most effective. However, the CDP-induced increase in eating did not noticeably stem weight loss. In Experiment 2, after several days of AA training, CDP (5.0 mg/kg) was tested under less severe conditions; food remained restricted, but access to the wheels was discontinued. Rats given CDP ate more and gained more weight than controls. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines such as CDP may help in treating anorexia nervosa and other anorectic conditions in humans.