Although the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) was originally discovered on primary sensory neurons, its broad tissue expression in non-neuronal cells has been reported on. Recently, VR1 expression was clearly demonstrated in a variety of cutaneous components, such as keratinocytes, glandular epithelium, mast cells and sebocytes, except for melanocytes and fibroblasts. However, we demonstrated the VR1 expression in the cultured human skin fibroblasts as follows. Previously cloned human VR1 primers that corresponded to the expected size of 680 bp by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were identified on the fibroblasts, the same as was noted for the positive control, the HaCaT cells. A positive immunoreactivity of the VR1 was observed both on fibroblasts and on HaCaT cells by Western blotting analysis. Fibroblasts treated with capsaicin, an agonist to the VR1, induced significant changes of the membrane current and the intracellular calcium level, and these changes were antagonized by capsazepin. Capsaicin treatment also showed a positive immunocytochemistry result. Our results suggest the existence of VR1 on fibroblasts; this receptor is likely to be influenced by ligand-dependent activation.