Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease with unknown aetiology. An increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insufficient antioxidant activity have been determined in psoriatic lesions. The analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a cytogenetic technique used to show DNA damage caused by an exchange of DNA fragments between sister chromatids. The study aimed to determine the rates of SCE in psoriatic patients (17 female and 19 male) and healthy controls (15 female and 15 male) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and catalase (CAT) activity in both groups. We found significantly higher SCE rates in the patients (P < 0.00001). In addition, statistically significant decreased levels of erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities were noted in the patients(P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively). Furthermore, a statistically significant increased erythrocyte GP activity was found in the psoriasis group (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that chromosomal instability may play an important part in the aetiology of psoriasis. In addition, the results support the hypothesis of an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system in psoriasis.