Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is one of the most common autoimmune endocrine disorders and often leads to hypothyroidism. It has been shown to substantially affect a patient's quality of life. Associated conditions and diseases were thought to be attributable to hypothyroidism. Yet, many patients still suffer from various symptoms even though all thyroid parameters are within the normal range. Independently of thyroid gland function, HT is associated with a wide range of organ-specific and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders, as well as other diseases, including neuropsychological/psychiatric deficits, decreased left ventricular performance, disorders of the gut, fibromyalgia and reproductive health issues, among others. The underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. Future treatment options might include thyroidectomy, selenium administration, prophylactic levothyroxine supplementation and dehydroepiandrosterone. However, further research is warranted to clarify the main pathophysiologic implications of thyroid autoimmunity and also to establish treatment options for euthyroid patients who suffer from HT-related symptoms and diseases.