Emerging science will make an important contribution towards the development of improved contraceptives. While long-acting reversible contraceptives remain the most effective method, new user-controlled, mid-acting methods will avoid the need for procedures requiring trained providers. Contraceptives combined with other agents may bring additional health benefits, such as dual protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Emerging research areas in proteomics allowed the discovery of new reproductive targets that may lead to non-hormonal contraceptives for both men and women. Current research objectives include the improvement of existing contraceptive methods, as well as discovery of new materials able to deliver new molecules more specifically to their target without systemic actions.