It is well documented that neuropeptides participate in local inflammatory reaction and modulate functions of inflammatory cells. The aim of the study was to determine a link between in vivo and in vitro effects of NPY-related peptides on inflammatory response with respect to ageing. Peptide YY (PYY) intraplantarly applied decreases concanavalin A-induced paw edema in 3 and 8 months, but not in 24 months old male rats of Albino Oxford strain. The use of NPY-related receptor-specific peptides and Y1 receptor antagonist revealed that anti-inflammatory effect of PYY is mediated via NPY Y1 receptors. PYY in vitro decreases adherence of macrophages from 8 months, but not from 3 and 24 months old rats and this effect is also mediated via NPY Y1 receptor. Additionally, PYY (10−6 M) decreases NBT reduction in macrophages from 3 and 8 months old rats, and suppresses NO production in cells from 24 months old rats, albeit regardless of absence of in vivo effect of PYY on inflammation in aged rats. It is concluded that aged rats are less responsive to anti-inflammatory action of PYY compared to adult and young rats, and that ageing is associated with altered NPY Y1 receptor functioning.