The Frailty Syndrome: Clinical measurements and basic underpinnings in humans and animals

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Frailty is an increasingly recognized syndrome resulting in age-related decline in function and reserve across multiple physiologic systems. It presents as a hyperinflammable state, characterized by high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes, such as disability, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality. The prevalence of Frailty Syndrome (FS) is of potentially enormous significance, as it potentially affects 20–30% of adults older than 75. Cellular and molecular basis of frailty has not been elucidated.

The objective of this review is to discuss recent advances in: (i) the potential cellular and molecular basis of Frailty Syndrome, including development of new models to study it; (ii) the human and animal measures of Frailty Syndrome; and (iii) the development of objective cross-species correlates to aid the basic understanding, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of Frailty Syndrome in older adults.

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