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Aging is the primary risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, understanding the basic biological changes that take place with aging that lead to the brain being less resilient to disease progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease or insults to the brain such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries. Clearly this will not cure the disease per se, yet increasing the ability of the brain to respond to injury could improve long term outcomes. The focus of this review is examining changes in microglia with age and possible therapeutic interventions involving the use of polyphenol rich dietary supplements.Aging leads to reduced resilience of the brain that underlies neurodegenerative disease prevalence.Altered function of microglia is one source of reduced resilience in the aging brain.Polyphenol rich dietary supplements can increase resilience in the aged brain.