Fluid and imaging biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: Where we stand and where to head to

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There is increasing evidence that a number of potentially informative biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) can improve the accuracy of diagnosing this form of dementia, especially when used as a panel of diagnostic assays and interpreted in the context of neuroimaging and clinical data. Moreover, by combining the power of CSF biomarkers with neuroimaging techniques to visualize Aβ deposits (or neurodegenerative lesions), it might be possible to better identify individuals at greatest risk for developing MCI and converting to AD. The objective of this article was to review recent progress in selected imaging and chemical biomarkers for prediction, early diagnosis and progression of AD. We present our view point of a scenario that places CSF and imaging markers on the verge of general utility based on accuracy levels that already match (or even surpass) current clinical precision.HIGHLIGHTSAmyloid-pathology CSF markers can indicate high-risk individuals for AD earlier.Imaging tends to be more informative only closer to or within the prodromal stage.42, t-tau and p-tau seem less suitable as markers of disease progression.Combination of markers present best predicting power of conversion to AD.Biomarkers are on the verge of surpassing current clinical precision in AD diagnosis.

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