Effect of metabolic syndrome and aging on Ca2+ dysfunction in coronary smooth muscle and coronary artery disease severity in Ossabaw miniature swine


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Abstract

Background:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and aging are prevalent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and contribute to the etiology of CAD, including dysregulation of Ca2+ handling mechanisms in coronary smooth muscle (CSM). The current study tested the hypothesis that CAD severity and CSM Ca2+ dysregulation were different in MetS-induced CAD compared to aging-induced CAD.Methods:Young (2.5±0.2years) and old (8.8±1.2years) Ossabaw miniature swine were fed an atherogenic diet for 11months to induce MetS and were compared to lean age-matched controls. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, and intravenous glucose tolerance test. CAD was measured with intravascular ultrasound and histology. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) was assessed with fura-2 imaging.Results:CAD severity was similar between MetS young and lean old swine, with MetS old swine exhibiting the most severe CAD. Compared to CSM [Ca2+]i handling in lean young, the MetS young and lean old swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store release, increased Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and attenuated sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity. MetS old and MetS young swine had similar Ca2+ dysregulation.Conclusions:Ca2+ dysregulation, mainly the SR Ca2+ store, in CSM is more pronounced in lean old swine, which is indicative of mild, proliferative CAD. MetS old and MetS young swine exhibit Ca2+ dysfunction that is typical of late, severe disease. The more advanced, complex plaques in MetS old swine suggest that the “aging milieu” potentiates effects of Ca2+ handling dysfunction in CAD.HIGHLIGHTSWe compared vascular health in both aged and metabolic syndrome (MetS) swine.Old lean swine had media thickening, while old MetS swine had intima thickening.Young and old MetS swine had Ca2+ handling that resembled severe coronary disease.Old lean swine had Ca2+ handling that resembled mild coronary disease.Aging milieu possibly caused more advanced plaques to develop in a MetS background.

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