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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resveratrol and regular aerobic exercise on vascular functions and biomarkers related to vessel responsiveness in an age and gender-dependent manner.The study used young (3 months) and old (12 months) male and female Wistar albino rats. Resveratrol was given in the drinking water (0.05 mg/ml; approximately 7.5 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. In the exercise group, all rats performed treadmill running at 20 m/min on a 0° incline, 40 min/day, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks.Acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside-mediated, endothelium-independent relaxations of rat thoracic aorta and blood levels of biomarkers were separately changed by resveratrol intake and exercise-training in an age and gender-dependent manner. Antioxidant enzymes and eNOS expressions in vessels were elevated by resveratrol and exercise. Resveratrol and exercise enhanced gene expressions of non-selective PDE1, 2, 3 and cAMP selective PDE4 but not cGMP selective PDE5 in the aorta. In addition, the aortic mRNA expression of inflammation markers were altered by resveratrol and exercise-training.The results of the study demonstrated that vessel responsiveness and biomarkers related to vascular functions were altered by resveratrol consumption and exercise-training in an age and gender-dependent manner.Resveratrol consumption and exercise-training changed the vessel responsiveness.The aortic expression of genes was changed by resveratrol and exercise.Biomarkers related to vascular functions were altered by resveratrol and exercise.The effects of resveratrol and exercise on the vessel were age and sex-dependent.