Management of gastroparesis

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Gastroparesis presents with nausea, vomiting, early satiety and abdominal discomfort, as well as a range of nongastrointestinal manifestations in association with delays in gastric emptying. The disorder may be a consequence of systemic illnesses, such as diabetes mellitus, occur as a complication of gastroesophageal surgery or develop in an idiopathic fashion and may mimic other disorders with normal gastric emptying. Some cases of idiopathic gastroparesis present after a viral infection. Management relies primarily on therapies that accelerate gastric emptying or reduce vomiting, although endoscopic or surgical options are available for refractory cases. Current research is focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying development of delayed gastric emptying, as well as factors unrelated to motor dysfunction that may elicit some symptoms. Future pharmaceuticals will target the contractile and nonmotor defects via novel pathways. Novel electrical stimulation techniques will be employed either alone or in combination with medications.

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