Currently available biomaterials for use in cardiopulmonary bypass

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Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) represents one of the most important technical innovations in healthcare history, yet the systemic responses to CPB remain a fundamentally unresolved problem. Study of the blood–biomaterial interaction and development of biocompatible materials is intimately related to efforts to optimize patient outcome following CPB. This article reviews the design innovations in biomaterial surfaces that have been introduced into clinical practice in an attempt to ameliorate the detrimental consequences of CPB, contrasting the actual clinical improvements and patient benefits achieved against those predicted on the basis of theory andin vitrotesting. Some discussion of the underlying mechanisms of action as presently understood is provided and the current limitations of biomaterial-dependent strategies to improve outcome following CPB are addressed.

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