Microelectronic array system for molecular diagnostic genotyping: Nanogen NanoChip® 400 and Molecular Biology Workstation

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Abstract

Hundreds of gene mutations responsible for Mendelian disorders are currently tested in the clinical laboratory for pre- and postnatal diagnosis, carrier screening and presymptomatic testing. Since human genetic research is currently focused on determining the etiology of complex diseases, including heart disease, diabetes and neuropsychiatric traits, laboratorians will genotype increasing numbers of clinically relevant loci in the future. This will require accurate, high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping platforms, such as the DNA microarray. The Nanogen NanoChip® platforms employ hybridization-based technology, using fluorescent detection and electronic control of the target or probe, to obtain clear genotype signal relative to background, and increased flexibility relative to similar chip-based single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping platforms. The scope of this review is intended to describe the operating principle, chips and instrumentation, analyte-specific reagents, published assay protocols, assay development, and clinical use of the NanoChip platforms. It is beyond the scope of this review to describe the use of NanoChip platforms in basic research, and to compare it against all available clinical single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping applications and platforms.

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