Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, with prevalence and the accompanying socioeconomic impact set to increase over the coming decades. Currently available medications result, at best, in modest cognitive improvement. With increasing understanding of the underlying pathology, new therapeutic targets are being identified at an ever-increasing rate. The key pathological events in the AD brain are deposition of insoluble amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuroinflammation leading, ultimately, to neuronal cell death. Each of these will be considered, in detail, in terms of the variety of therapeutic approaches currently being investigated and mechanisms that may prove amenable to intervention in the future.