Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly complex disorder with multiple treatment options. Impairments associated with ADHD, rather than symptoms defining the disorder, are the primary reason for referral of individuals to clinical services; consequently, they should also be key targets for intervention. Impairments are moderated by factors such as comorbidities, family environment and intelligence quotient, and particular challenges may vary between patients. The understanding of patient and family treatment preferences, as well as identification of treatment needs and goals, should drive future clinical practice. This review addresses the assessment of ADHD treatment goals and outcomes in clinical practice, and discusses changes in future clinical research studies necessary to progress the utilization of an individualized medicine approach in ADHD.