Adult neurogenesis is modulated by growth factors, physical conditions, and other alterations in the physical microenvironment. We studied the effects of focal ischemia on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb (OB), and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) (known to be persistent neurogenic regions) in the adult non-human primate, the cynomolgus monkey. Three monkeys underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal ischemia and were given multiple BrdU injections during the first 2 weeks after ischemia. Twenty-eight days later, the animals were perfused. The number of new neurons (3182 ± 408/mm3) in the ipsilateral DG of ischemic monkeys was 4.7-fold that in the DG of non-operated monkeys. The number of new neurons (9176 ± 2295/mm3) in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb of ischemic monkeys was 18.0-fold that in normal olfactory bulb. These observations suggest an increase in the number of new OB neurons, as well as new DG neurons, after focal ischemia in a primate. This substantial increase in new neurons after focal ischemia could result from the enhancement of cell proliferation rather than a change in the rate of cell commitment. Of the three monkeys subjected to ischemia, only one animal possessed a unique progenitor cell type at the most anterior aspect of the ipsilateral SVZ. Within this region, a short migration (˜500 μm) of doublecortin-expressing immature neuronal progenitor cells was observed.