Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as nonmenstrual or noncyclic pelvic pain lasting for at least 6 months, which interferes with habitual activities, and causes a direct impact on relationships and social and professional obligations, and requires clinical or surgical treatment. Its prevalence is estimated at 3.8% among women aged 15–73 years, and at 14–24% among women of reproductive age. Some diagnostic conditions are common; among them endometriosis, adhesions, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal wall myofascial syndrome. There is strong evidence demonstrating that up to 85% of patients with CPP have dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, including postural changes, spasms of the pelvic muscles and abdominal wall myofascial syndrome, among others. In the present review article, we evaluate the main musculoskeletal causes of CPP and its diagnosis and treatment.