Surgery is a main management strategy in treatment of infertility originating from uterine, ovarian or tubal pathologies. However, benefits of surgery in accordance with the type of pathologies could not always be predicted. In summary, this review revealed that surgical correction of some pathologies lead to a significant improvement in fertility, such as submucous myomas or intramural myomas distorting endometrial cavity; however, benefit of surgery is controversial in some specific conditions including endometriomas. Outcome of surgical correction mostly depends on the type of pathology in uterine anomalies. Surgical treatment is a well-established approach in management of hydrosalpinx and it should be recommended before assisted reproduction. Reproductive surgery should be individualized according to the patient characteristics including age, duration of infertility, previous pregnancy losses and type of associated pathology.