The effect of part-time wear of 2-zone concentric bifocal spectacle lenses on refractive error development & eye growth in young chicks


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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to characterize in young chicks the myopia control effects of part-time wear of two-zone concentric bifocal lenses. Nine-day-old chicks (n = 115) were first made myopic with monocular −10 Diopter (D) single vision (SV) lenses worn for 3 days. Over the 6 days following myopia induction, either 1) two-zone bifocal lenses (−10 D center/−5 D periphery, BFDC) were worn for 12 (full-time), 10, 8, or 6 h, with −10 D SV lenses worn for the remainder of the day, or 2) BFDC or BFNC (−5 D center/−10 D periphery) lenses were worn every other day (EOD). Control birds wore −10 D SV lenses every day. Refractive error (RE) and axial ocular dimensions were monitored every three days with retinoscopy and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography respectively. Mean interocular RE and axial length differences after 3 days of myopia induction (±SEM) were −9.6 ± 0.19 D and 0.26 ± 0.01 mm across the groups. At the end of the following 6-day treatment period, equivalent values were: −10.66 ± 0.28 D, 0.42 ± 0.02 mm (SV-control); 1) −4.61 ± 0.29 D, 0.26 ± 0.02 mm (BFDC, 12 h); −4.82 ± 0.23 D, 0.28 ± 0.02 mm (BFDC, 10 h); −5.21 ± 0.27 D, 0.24 ± 0.02 mm (BFDC, 8 h); −6.34 ± 0.34 D, 0.25 ± 0.03 mm (BFDC, 6 h); 2) −8.29 ± 0.29 D, 0.32 ± 0.03 mm (BFDC, EOD), and −8.83 ± 0.36 D, 0.33 ± 0.03 mm (BFNC, EOD). Overall, full-time BFDC and part-time BFDC and BFNC lens groups exhibited similar changes and were less myopic than the SV group. The results suggest that bifocal lenses may have myopia control effects even when worn part-time, interleaved with standard (SV) myopic corrections, especially if worn for at least 6 h per day.HighlightsMyopia control in chicks can be achieved with bifocal lenses, even when wear is interrupted with up to 6 h/day of SV wear.Exposure to bifocal lenses every other day offers some benefit, but is not as effective as full-time myopia control therapy.It is possible that daily bifocal lens wear may be reduced by up to 50% without substantial reduction in treatment efficacy.

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