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Advances in insulin therapy have made a positive contribution to improving disease management in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The development of insulin analogs with time–action characteristics has made it easier to mimic physiological insulin secretion. The parallel improvement in delivery devices has also made insulin therapy more convenient, flexible and acceptable. The inevitable progression of Type 2 diabetes means that the majority of those people will also require insulin therapy at some point in their disease course. Current treatment options are many; when to initiate insulin and which regimen to choose are among the major questions confronting physicians in today's rapidly evolving environment. This article summarizes the current strategies for initiating and optimizing the use of the basal insulin analog, insulin glargine, in Type 2 diabetes, leading to the intermediate stage of insulin therapy with the introduction of meal-related, rapid-acting insulin analogs in a stepwise manner prior to a full replacement basal-bolus regimen.