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Small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are more susceptible to oxidation than their larger, more buoyant counterparts and therefore the biological modification of these LDL particles may, in part, be responsible for their atherogenic properties. Kotani et al. found that at multiple regression analysis there was an independent and significant inverse correlation between the mean LDL particle size and the oxidative stress status; notably, the authors adjusted not only for the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but also for drug treatments. Higher levels of small, dense LDL concentrations significantly contribute to atherosclerosis, and lipoprotein size and subfractions may refine cardiovascular disease risk assessment.