Genetic strategies for the personalization of antipsychotic treatment

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Pharmacogenetic research into complex traits, such as response to antipsychotic treatment has proved a difficult task. Nevertheless, investigation of drug metabolic enzymes has revealed polymorphisms in specific cytochrome P450 genes responsible for treatment-induced toxic reactions. However, the picture becomes more complicated when drug target sites are investigated in search of genetic influence. Most antipsychotic drugs are multitarget, denoting a complex mechanism of action. Although individual genes have been reported to influence antipsychotic response, no single gene can account for the variability observed in treatment response. Current investigations focus on single gene variants that may be associated with particular side effects or symptoms as well as contributing to general response. The scope of this article is to review recent advances of pharmacogenetic research on antipsychotic drugs and the strategies under development for the individualization of treatment.

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