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Human papillomavirus infections are associated with the development of cervical neoplasia. Human papillomavirus is a group of heterogeneous viruses, comprising many genotypes, which can be divided into high-risk and low-risk types, depending on their association with disease. Therefore, accurate molecular diagnostic tools are required for detection and identification of human papillomavirus. Monitoring of human papillomavirus infection is necessary for adequate patient management and follow-up during treatment. This review describes the different molecular methods available for human papillomavirus detection and identification of genotypes.