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Molecular diagnostic tests based on nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs) have become widely established in clinical microbiology laboratories in recent years. The acceptance of these tests has been driven by the development of more accurate and less labor-intensive commercial assay kits by diagnostic manufacturers. Infectious disease diagnostic assays using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) NAAT have become increasingly popular in many clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent technology developments have improved the performance and simplified the use of the TMA assays. These new technologies have been applied to the development of multiplex TMA tests to improve the testing accuracy for organisms, such asChlamydia trachomatisandNeisseria gonorrhoeaein clinical microbiology laboratories. TMA tests for HIV-1 and HCV have also led to improvements in blood bank testing which can improve the safety of the public blood supply.