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Scientific progress and information relating to the theoretical and clinical work being carried out in the field of obstetrics and gynecology has dramatically increased due to recent developments in molecular biology. Molecular obstetrics and gynecology is therefore the link between the different sections in obstetrics and gynecology. At present, the molecular understanding of cellular pathways is much greater than that of the direct integration of molecular diagnostics and therapy in routine clinical practice. The use of molecular diagnostics, such as preimplantation diagnostics or predictive genetic testing, still has technical problems as well as novel, and to date unclear, social, ethical and legal implications. To date, the technical elements of molecular therapy have not yet fulfilled their expectations. In the broad spectrum of obstetrics and gynecology, new molecular discoveries are influenced not only by technical but also by socioeconomic and political considerations. These include, for example, free access to genetic testing, patents for genes and the financial monopoly over molecular medication. Society must propose rules for the potential integration of the knowledge of molecular obstetrics and gynecology into the daily care of those seeking aid or advice.