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The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multiprotein complexes and two mobile electron carriers embedded in the lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial inner membrane. With the exception of complex II and the mobile carriers, the other parts of the OXPHOS system are under dual genetic control. Due to this bigenomic control, the inheritance of OXPHOS system defects is either maternal, in the case of mitochondrial DNA mutations, autosomal or X-linked, in the case of nuclear gene defects. In this review, our current genetic understanding of OXPHOS system enzyme deficiencies will be summarized, and future directions that the field might take to unravel so-far genetically unresolved OXPHOS system enzyme deficiencies will be described, with special emphasis on complex I biogenesis.