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1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a validated marker of short-term glycemic control. It is a metabolically inert polyol that competes with glucose for reabsorption in the kidneys. Otherwise stable levels of 1,5-AG are rapidly depleted as blood glucose levels exceed the renal threshold for glucosuria. 1,5-AG more accurately predicts rapid changes in glycemia than hemoglobin A1C (A1C) or fructosamine. It is also more tightly associated with glucose fluctuations and postprandial glucose. Thus, 1,5-AG may offer complementary information to A1C. This review will summarize the limitations of current methods of assessing glycemic control, assess the data to support 1,5-AG as a glycemic marker and highlight the scenarios by which 1,5-AG may fill the gap in assessing glycemic control.