Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) enhances cardiac vagal baroreflexes in normotensive animals. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) this effect of ANP was absent. The reflex actions of ANP were preserved if hypertrophy was completely prevented in SHRs. However even a small amount of cardiac hypertrophy, with no hypertension, in SHRs was accompanied by a loss of the reflex bradycardic actions of ANP. In the present study, we investigated whether pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by one-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension (1K-1C; n = 6), or physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic spontaneous, wheel-running exercise training (n = 7), similarly prevented vagal reflex actions of ANP. Cardiac baroreceptor-activated bradycardia was measured during rapid ramp increases (∼5 s) in blood pressure after bolus doses of methoxamine or vehicle in conscious, chronically instrumented rats during infusions of ANP (50 pmol kg−1 min−1). Compared with uninephrectomised control rats (n = 10), rats with 1K-1C had cardiac hypertrophy (∼55% increase in left ventricle:body weight (LV:BW) ratio; P < 0.05) and blunted vagal baroreflex gain (−0.93 ± 0.18 versus−0.50 ± 0.13 beats min−1 mmHg−1; P < 0.05). ANP did not augment baroreflex function in 1K-1C. Compared with their sedentary controls (n = 7), exercise-trained rats with cardiac hypertrophy (∼20% increase LV:BW ratio; P < 0.05) also had blunted ramp baroreflex bradycardia (−1.28 ± 0.23 versus−0.57 ± 0.09 beats min−1 mmHg−1; P < 0.05). In contrast, ANP more than doubled baroreflex bradycardia in exercise-trained rats (P < 0.05). The aetiology of cardiac hypertrophy therefore influenced whether ANP retained its vagal baroreflex enhancing properties.