Due to the enormous complexity of the proteome, focus in proteomics shifts more and more from the study of the complete proteome to the targeted analysis of part of the proteome. The isolation of this specific part of the proteome generally includes an affinity-based enrichment. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a label-free technique able to follow enrichment in real-time and in a semiquantitative manner, is an emerging tool for targeted affinity enrichment. Furthermore, in combination with mass spectrometry (MS), SPR can be used to both selectively enrich for and identify proteins from a complex sample. Here we illustrate the use of SPR-MS to solve proteomics-based research questions, describing applications that use very different types of immobilized components: such as small (drug or messenger) molecules, peptides, DNA and proteins. We evaluate the current possibilities and limitations and discuss the future developments of the SPR-MS technique.