Overall changes in the host cellular proteome upon retroviral infection intensify from the initial entry of the virus to the incorporation of viral DNA into the host genome, and finally to the consistent latent state of infection. The host cell reacts to both the entry of viral elements and the manipulation of host cellular machinery, resulting in a cascade of signaling events and pathway activation. Cell type- and tissue-specific responses are also characteristic of infection and can be classified based on the differential expression of genes and proteins between normal and disease states. The characterization of differentially expressed proteins upon infection is also critical in identifying potential biomarkers within infected bodily fluids. Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression of infection, track the effectiveness of specific treatments and characterize the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Standard proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor the changes in global protein expression and localization in infected cells, tissues and fluids. Here we report on recent investigations into the characterization of proteomes in response to retroviral infection.