Proteomics has changed the way proteins are analyzed in living systems. This approach has been applied to blood products and protein profiling has evolved in parallel with the development of techniques. The identification of proteins belonging to red blood cell, platelets or plasma was achieved at the end of the last century. Then, the questions on the applications emerged. Hence, several studies have focused on problems related to blood banking and products, such as the aging of blood products, identification of biomarkers, related diseases and the protein–protein interactions. More recently, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to quality control has been applied in order to offer solutions and improve the quality of blood products. The current challenge we face is developing a closer relationship between transfusion medicine and proteomics. In this article, these issues will be approached by focusing first on the proteome identification of blood products and then on the applications and future developments within the field of proteomics and blood products.