Attenuated Salmonella vaccines can be administered orally to deliver recombinant antigens to mucosal surfaces inducing a protective immune response against a variety of targeted pathogens. A number of exciting new approaches and technologies for attenuated Salmonella vaccines have been developed recently. However, a disconnect remains between results obtained with mice in preclinical studies and results obtained in human clinical trials. This is due to an incomplete understanding of Salmonella Typhi interactions with human hosts and inadequate animal models available for study. In this review, the authors describe recent progress in identifying important differences underlying S. Typhi–host interactions, the development of novel approaches to vaccine design and six recent clinical trials evaluating Salmonella-vectored vaccines.