During the past 30 years, the prevalence rate of myopia has been increased dramatically. Myopia has become one of the leading causes of vision loss in some countries, whereas the mechanism of the main pathological change in myopia is still largely unknown. Although several studies showed genetic background influences the phenotype of myopia to some extent, the sudden increase of morbidity cannot be explained by genetics only. The change in lifestyle results in tremendous change in the light environment, which can be considered to play an important role in the onset and progression of myopia. The difference between indoor and outdoor light environments such as intensity and wavelength of modern electronic lighting equipment may be a cue for myopia control as environmental factors. In this review, we discuss the relationship between myopia and light environment focusing on the basic and clinical studies.