Long-Term Clinical Observation of Posterior Chamber Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation in Young Population

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To compare the clinical outcomes and vision-related quality of life after implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation for younger patients (17 years ≤ age ≤21 years) and for older patients (age >21 years).


Design: Retrospective observational study. This study-enrolled patients underwent ICL implantation and finished 5-year follow-up who were divided into two groups based on age. Uncorrected distance visual acuity and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refractions for the evaluation of efficacy, safety, stability, and predictability, intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell, ICL vaults, higher-order aberration (HOA), contrast sensitivity (CS) functions, adverse events, and quality of life were evaluated on 1, 3, 7, 14 days, 1, 3, 6 months and 1, 3, 5 years after surgery.


The study enrolled 164 eyes (82 patients), 84 in younger group (17 years ≤ age ≤21 years) and 80 in older group (age >21 years). The mean postoperative log of minimal angle of resolution CDVA of younger group was better than those of older group. The mean spherical equivalent values were more myopic in younger group than older group. As for CS and HOA, the younger and older groups showed similar data. The NEI-RQL scores of dependence on correction, worry, suboptimal correction, appearance, and satisfaction of older group were higher, whereas the score of symptom and near vision was worse. Both groups showed similar results in vaults, endothelial cell density and adverse events.


The ICL performed well for the ametropia correction of both younger and older patients throughout the 5-year period. In the younger group, the visual quality was even better, but the myopic shift was quicker.

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