Development and Validation of a Brief Four-Component Questionnaire to Identify Patient's Motivation to Undergo Functional Rhinoplasty

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Abstract

Outcome of functional rhinoplasty depends on different domains such as functional and aesthetic improvement. The aim of this study was to develop a brief and comprehensible questionnaire to identify patient motivation to undergo rhinoplasty and to measure the outcome of an intervention within a short time during outpatient consultation. Patients undergoing rhinoplasty were asked to complete the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE) questionnaire, the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale, and the Utrecht Questionnaire for Outcome Assessment in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty (OAR) preoperatively, as well as one, three, and twelve months postoperatively. Patient satisfaction after surgery was assessed at postoperative consultations using a five-point Likert scale. Principle component analysis was performed to reveal the main domains, which were detected by the different questionnaires. Items with the strongest loading on a factor were identified by correlation matrix. Influence of the nasal appearance on the quality of life, troubles with nasal breathing, subjective perception of nasal appearance, and the wish for modification or alteration were found to be the four important domains of the questionnaires. The questions with the strongest loading on these domains were compiled and the four-component questionnaire (4CQ) was developed. The 4CQ is a very effective instrument to obtain a comprehensive impression of the varied determinants representing the major motifs to undergo functional rhinoplasty within a short time. The preoperative assessment of the 4CQ allows an estimation concerning the expected outcome.

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