A Clinical Model for Procedural Pain Interventions: Practice Guidelines for Comprehensive and Individualized Application*

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This article describes a clinical model for comprehensive and individualized interventions for procedural pain, and illustrates the utility of practice guidelines to educate clinicians and families as well as to contain cost and liability. The clinical model addresses several problems in the literature regarding procedural pain: 1) unclear definitions of interventions that impede communication and factor analytic research; 2) conflicting clinical objectives to standardize yet individualize these interventions to the needs of particular patients and families; and 3) little or no literature devoted to training interventionists. The model presents a topographical behavioral analysis of the intervention process, and outlines critical decision-points in the design and application of interventions. The utility for training practitioners and families is discussed.

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