Residual abnormalities in cardiac structure and function predispose adults with congenital heart disease to late-onset heart failure and its complications. Evaluation of this population requires collaboration between adult congenital and heart failure specialists. In addition to assessing heart transplant eligibility, clinicians must balance the risks of premature listing against progressive heart failure and increased waiting list mortality. Following heart transplantation, adults with congenital heart disease have higher mortality due to an increased risk of bleeding, infection and donor right heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension. Concerns relating to increased early mortality should be balanced against superior long-term survival in adult congenital heart disease patients surviving beyond the first year after heart transplantation.