An update on complications associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation: stroke, paravalvular leak, atrioventricular block and perforation

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Abstract

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk and the standard of care in patients who are inoperable for open aortic valve replacement. With technological evolution and increasing experience, the procedure has become more predictable. Complications of TAVI, however, are not infrequent, and can range from minor to life-threatening events. Stroke, paravalvular leak, various forms of atrioventricular block, including the need for permanent pacemakers and aortic annular and ventricular perforation will be the focus of the present review. Other complications associated with TAVI (such as vascular injury, acute kidney injury, coronary obstruction, valve malpositioning or migration) are clinically important, but are beyond the scope of this article. Understanding the occurrence and pathophysiology of these complications may provide insights into the improvement of the transcatheter devices and techniques, and aid in extending the application of TAVI to a broader population.

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