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We analysed the diversity of tenascin-X (TNX) species in serum and studied parameters that could affect determination of TNX levels in serum. Using western blot analysis we identified at least seven distinct TNX species, ranging from 75 kDa to the presumably full-length 450 kDa form. Purification of serum TNX followed by sequence analysis positively identified two major TNX species of 75 and 140 kDa. We found that serum TNX binds to tropoelastin but not to fibrillar collagens. We conclude that serum TNX is composed of distinct molecular species that retain functional activity.