The signaling mechanism of ambient pH sensing and adaptation in yeast and fungi


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Abstract

The four protein complexes termed endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are key mediators of multivesicular body sorting/formation, retroviral budding and cell abscission, which share a membrane deformation process with the same topological change: vesicles budding away from the cytoplasm. Independent studies of the signal transduction pathways that mediate ambient pH sensing and adaptation in yeast and fungi revealed that these pathways share a conserved signaling mechanism that utilizes ESCRT complexes for its activation. This pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, termed the Rim101 pathway, consists of both a sensing complex, which senses ambient alkaline pH, and a proteolytic complex, which proteolyzes and thereby activates the key transcription factor Rim101. Since the proteolytic complex is thought to be formed and activated on a platform of a multimerized ESCRT-III component Snf7, the organization, regulation and function of this pathway are dependent on the function of ESCRT complexes.

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