Preventive DNA repair by sanitizing the cellular (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphate pool

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The occurrence of modified bases in DNA is attributed to some major factors: incorporation of altered nucleotide building blocks and chemical reactions or radiation effects on bases within the DNA structure. Several enzyme families are involved in preventing the incorporation of noncanonical bases playing a ‘sanitizing’ role. The catalytic mechanism of action of these enzymes has been revealed for a number of representatives in clear structural and kinetic detail. In this review, we focus in detail on those examples where clear evidence has been produced using high-resolution structural studies. Comparing the protein fold and architecture of the enzyme active sites, two main classes of sanitizing deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatases can be assigned that are distinguished by the site of nucleophilic attack. In enzymes associated with attack at the α-phosphorus, it is shown that coordination of the γ-phosphate group is also ensured by multiple interactions. By contrast, enzymes catalyzing attack at the β-phosphorus atom mainly coordinate the α- and the β-phosphate only. Characteristic differences are also observed with respect to the role of the metal ion cofactor (Mg2+) and the coordination of nucleophilic water. Using different catalytic mechanisms embedded in different protein folds, these enzymes present a clear example of convergent evolution.Preventive repair of DNA and RNA is accomplished by hydrolysis of noncanonical nucleotides via (deoxy)nucleotide triphosphate pyrophosphatases. These enzymes employ two distinct catalytic mechanisms with nucleophilic attack on either α or beta β phosphorus. Here the recent structural and mechanistic advancements of (d)NTP PPases are reviewed, emphasizing characteristic nucleotide and cofactor coordination during the catalytic conversion.

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