Calpain involvement in the remodeling of cytoskeletal anchorage complexes

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Abstract

Cells offer different types of cytoskeletal anchorages: transitory structures such as focal contacts and perennial ones such as the sarcomeric cytoskeleton of muscle cells. The turnover of these structures is controlled with different timing by a family of cysteine proteases activated by calcium, the calpains. The large number of potential substrates present in each of these structures imposes fine tuning of the activity of the proteases to avoid excessive action. This phenomenon is thus guaranteed by various types of regulation, ranging from a relatively high calcium concentration necessary for activation, phosphorylation of substrates or the proteases themselves with either a favorable or inhibitory effect, possible intervention of phospholipids, and the presence of a specific inhibitor and its possible degradation before activation. Finally, formation of multiprotein complexes containing calpains offers a new method of regulation.

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