SIRT6 reduces macrophage foam cell formation by inducing autophagy and cholesterol efflux under ox-LDL condition

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SIRT6 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism. It is also closely connected to cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. We observed a decrease in the expression of SIRT6 and key autophagy effectors (ATG5, LC3B, and LAMP1) in ox-LDL-induced foam cells, a special form of lipid-laden macrophages. In these cells, SIRT6 WT but not SIRT6 H133Y overexpression markedly reduced foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O staining, while inducing autophagy flux, as determined by both mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Silencing the key autophagy initiation gene ATG5, reversed the autophagy-promoting effect of SIRT6 in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells, as evidenced by an increase in foam cells. Cholesterol efflux assays indicated that SIRT6 overexpression in foam cells promoted cholesterol efflux, increased the levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and reduced miR-33 levels. By transfecting miR-33 into cells overexpressing SIRT6, we observed that reduced foam cell formation and autophagy flux induction were largely reversed. These data imply that SIRT6 plays an essential role in protecting against atherosclerosis by reducing foam cell formation through an autophagy-dependent pathway.

The histone deacetylase SIRT6 regulates lipid metabolism. We report that SIRT6 overexpression prevented oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated macrophages from becoming lipid-laden macrophages called foam cells. SIRT6 overexpression induced autophagy flux in ox-LDL-treated macrophages, and the HDAC activity of SIRT6 was necessary for this activity. Thus, a strategy aimed at increasing SIRT6 activity could be a promising avenue for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

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