MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a significant role in tumor development. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we found that miR-19a expression was significantly increased in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tissues compared with androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) tissues. We found that inhibiting the overexpression of miR-19a in CRPC cells suppressed proliferation and increased apoptosis. Additionally, we found that miR-19a repressed BTG1 expression by binding to its 3′-untranslated region. The overexpression of BTG1 in CRPC cells significantly suppressed proliferation and increased apoptosis. We conclude that miR-19a regulates proliferation and apoptosis of CRPC cells by directly targeting the tumor suppressor gene BTG1.