|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The major problem encountered during genetic manipulation of bacteria is the inability to get transformed because of their natural non-competency. In this study, to overcome this problem, a cost-effective method was developed by combining the properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and the Yoshida effect. Various parameters, including GNP:plasmid ratio, pH and time, were optimized for stability of the GNP-plasmid conjugate. With non-competent Gram-negative cells, the efficiency ranged between 0.1 and 0.45 × 104 transformants μg−1, while the range was (0.02-0.2) × 104 transformants μg−1 with Gram-positive bacteria. GNPs can serve efficiently as a vehicle for better transformation in bacteria.