AccD6 is an important component of acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase, which acts as a key role in mycolic acid synthesis and short chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A metabolism. In this study, we demonstrated that AccD6 of Mycobacterium smegmatis associates with AccA3 (α subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, MSMEG_1807) and AccE (ε subunit, MSMEG_1812) to form the acetyl-CoA (propionyl-CoA) carboxylase. Results showed that the MSMEG_4331 subunit is a regulator that interacts with the promoter region of accD6 to inhibit its transcription. Transcription of accD6 was reduced by 50% in the mutant M. smegmatis strain overexpressing MSMEG_4331. Moreover, the activity of AccD6 was inhibited by acylation (such as acetylation and propionylation). These results demonstrate that AccD6 of M. smegmatis is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Our findings highlight the novel regulatory mechanism underlying mycolic acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria.