Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosisandCandida tropicalis:biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance

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The incidence of infections caused by Candida species (candidosis) has increased considerably over the past three decades, mainly due to the rise of the AIDS epidemic, an increasingly aged population, higher numbers of immunocompromised patients and the more widespread use of indwelling medical devices. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidosis; however, non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis are now frequently identified as human pathogens. The apparent increased emergence of these species as human pathogens can be attributed to improved identification methods and also associated with the degree of diseases of the patients, the interventions that they were subjected and the drugs used. Candida pathogenicity is facilitated by a number of virulence factors, most importantly adherence to host surfaces including medical devices, biofilm formation and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (e.g. proteases, phospholipases and haemolysins). Furthermore, despite extensive research to identify pathogenic factors in fungi, particularly in C. albicans, relatively little is known about NCAC species. This review provides information on the current state of knowledge on the biology, identification, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance of C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis.

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