Alternative clamp loaders/unloaders

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Each time a cell duplicates, the whole genome must be accurately copied and distributed. The enormous amount of DNA in eukaryotic cells requires a high level of coordination between polymerases and other DNA and chromatin-interacting proteins to ensure timely and accurate DNA replication and chromatin formation. PCNA forms a ring that encircles the DNA. It serves as a processivity factor for DNA polymerases and as a landing platform for different proteins that interact with DNA and chromatin. It thus serves as a signaling hub and influences the rate and accuracy of DNA replication, the r-formation of chromatin in the wake of the moving fork and the proper segregation of the sister chromatids. Four different, conserved, protein complexes are in charge of loading/unloading PCNA and similar molecules onto DNA. Replication factor C (RFC) is the canonical complex in charge of loading PCNA, the replication clamp, during S-phase. The Rad24, Ctf18 and Elg1 proteins form complexes similar to RFC, with particular functions in the cell's nucleus. Here we summarize our current knowledge about the roles of these important factors in yeast.

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